The security situation in the EU has substantially changed since the adoption of the previous EU legislation on combating terrorism – Council Framework Decision 2002/475/JHA. The enhanced globalisation, the ease of travel and transfer of money and communication, especially through the internet, has progressively facilitated the access to radical ideas and training, thus contributing to the appearance and diffusion of the phenomenon of the so-called “foreign fighters”.

On 15 March 2017, the Directive (EU) 2017/541 (the “Directive on combating terrorism”) was adopted with the aim of tackling the evolving issues in the fight against terrorism. It provides for the criminalisation of different forms of support to terrorist activities and improves existing provisions on aiding, abetting, inciting and attempting. Finally, the Directive establishes measures for the protection, support and assistance to victims of terrorism in order to address their specific needs, such as immediate access to professional, specialist support services providing physical and psychosocial treatments.

In order to ensure the good implementation of this Directive, Milieu will carry out a compliance study for DG HOME to assess the implementation by carrying out both a completeness and conformity check of the national transposing legislation and implementation measures and checking the practical application of the Directive in 25 Member States (Denmark, Ireland and the UK are excluded).