Implementation & Enforcement Studies
Implementation and enforcement are vital for policy. At the European level, good compliance with EU obligations is needed across Member States to guarantee a coherent European approach. Studies on the implementation and enforcement of legal obligations provide needed insight into the way legal requirements are applied in practice. The identification of problems and of good practices can form the basis for amendments to existing legislation or the adoption of new legislation.
Milieu has strong experience in the review of policy implementation and enforcement, including expertise in access to justice, inspection requirements and methods, and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Milieu has carried out such studies in a range of fields – including labour law, environmental law, anti-discrimination legislation and the EU single market. Our work has also encompassed international conventions, such as international maritime conventions. In our implementation and enforcement studies, we have undertaken legal analysis of national provisions, carried out questionnaires and interviews to learn about enforcement practices, and prepared case studies to highlight examples of good practice. We have developed common methodologies and tools to ensure an equivalent level of scrutiny and consistency among national studies.
Examples of projects that Milieu has undertaken in this area include:
Study to assess the benefits delivered through the enforcement of EU environmental legislation, DG Environment, 2015-2016: The general objective of this study was to attempt to qualify, and to some extent, quantify the effects of the enforcement action pursued by the European Commission on the implementation of EU Environment law in the Member States and more precisely on the benefits brought to citizens in terms of providing a better environment. More info
Assessment of impact of storm water overflows from combined waste water collecting systems on water bodies (including the marine environment) in the 28 EU Member States, DG Environment, 2014-2015: The reduction of the number of occurrences and volume of storm water overflows from sewerage systems is essential to achieve full compliance with the Urban Waste Water Directive (UWWTD), and thus to the protection of Europe’s waters. The overall objective of this project was to provide DG Environment with an overview of how storm water overflows are regulated in EU Member States and their impacts More info
Providing support to the assessment of the Water Framework Directive and Floods Directive’s plans and implementation, DG Environment, 2014-2015: A key milestone under the WFD is the preparation of River Basin Management Plans (RBMPs) every six years. Another key piece of EU legislation is the Floods Directive 2007/60/EC (FD), which aims at reducing the adverse consequences of floods for human health, economic activity, cultural heritage and the environment: under the FD, Member States prepare Flood Risk Management Plans (FRMPs), also every six years. The objective of this project is to support the Commission in the assessment of RBMPs and FRMPs prepared by the 28 EU Member States. Milieu Ltd is an important member of the large consortium led by WRc for this work. More info
Study on Implementation and Enforcement of Restrictions under Title VIII and Annex XVII to REACH in the Member States, DG Enterprise, 2011: Milieu is assessing the implementation and enforcement of EU chemical legislation and, in particular, the conditions for the free circulation of products in this sector. Our work has identified good practices and major difficulties and has sought to provide suggestions of possible ways to improve implementation and enforcement.
Provisions on penalties related to legislation on industrial installations, DG Environment, 2010-2011: Milieu is currently reviewing the enforcement systems and legal sanctions for breaches of EU legislation on industrial emissions. Our work, which covers all Member States, will identify the key factors and issues influencing the effectiveness of enforcement mechanisms. More info...
Studies on the implementation of the EU Labour Law Directives in Bulgaria and Romania, DG Employment, 2008-2010: Milieu reviewed the transposition of 17 EU Directives governing information and consultation of employees and working time. We assessed the impact of the transposing measures on national industrial relations, prepared an overview of sanctions and an analysis of case law, and reviewed the positions of relevant stakeholders.
Application and effectiveness of the Directive on Environmental Impact Assessment and on Strategic Environmental Assessment, DG Environment, 2007-2008: Milieu participated in the assessment of the implementation of EIA and SEA Directives in Member States. Our work included an analysis of the relationship in practice between these two directives and other relevant legislation.