Carbon capture and storage
Review of regulatory and institutional frameworks on Carbon Capture and Storage in Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo
Client: World Bank
As its name suggests, carbon capture and storage (CCS) involves the capture of carbon dioxide emissions from industrial installations, transport of the gas to a storage site via pipeline and its injection into a suitable underground geological formation for the purposes of permanent storage.
The technologies involved in CCS are relatively new and still controversial. Proponents view it as a way of addressing climate change, but other bodies argue that the technology involved is not yet proven and that it cannot be deployed in time and at the required scale to avoid the worst impacts of climate change. To-date the EU has supported CCS, adopting Directive 2009/31/EC on the geological storage of carbon dioxide in April 2009.
The World Bank is involved in various knowledge-sharing initiatives on CCS. The Bank asked Milieu to carry out a regulatory and institutional review of CCS frameworks in Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo.
The work involved preparing a report which assessed all relevant legislation (multilateral, regional, bilateral and national) and institutions in the field of CCS in the three countries. Since there is very little specific-CCS legislation adopted in these countries at present, Milieu drew upon potentially applicable legislation in the sectors of environment, oil and gas and mining.
Milieu considered some of the key issues in developing a CCS regulatory regime, such as the legal definition of carbon dioxide, proprietary rights to cross-boundary CCS sites as well as long-term management and liability issues.
Milieu’s final report to the World Bank identified gaps in the existing regulatory frameworks which might prevent deployment of CCS projects in the three countries and the Western Balkan region in general.