Pollution and emissions
Identification of the contribution to pollution and emissions of activities and/or pollutants not regulated under EU environmental law
Client: DG Environment/ DG CLIMA
This project covered the collection and analysis of data on the contribution of air and water pollution from four main areas: activities currently defined in Annex I to the Industrial Emissions Directive (Directive 2010/75/EC), activities covered under other EU legislation (e.g. Directive 91/271/EEC on treatment of urban waste water), those presently not covered under EU legislation targeting emissions, and contributions from other anthropogenic sources.
Directive 2010/75/EC (IED) was a recast of seven directives relating to the prevention, reduction and control from industrial sources. In developing the proposals for the recast, the European Commission conducted a number of technical studies and an assessment of the impacts that change the existing seven directives and what effect those changes would have on Member States, and the industries operating within them.
The focus was particularly on large combustion plants. The assessment also considered a range of other (agro-)industrial activities and indeed some of these were included in Annex I as new activities. However, based on reviews of the data submitted by Member States, competent authorities and industrial operators, the initial conclusion reached by the Commission involved two particular categories of activities not covered in the review of the IPPC Directive – notably those not covered by EU environmental law and new industrial activities (developed as result of progression and innovation). These may contribute significantly to the overall emissions to air, water and land.
It was therefore important that the Commission have access to up-to-date comprehensive and accurate information regarding the relative contribution being made by activities currently controlled through other EU legislation (category ii) and those not covered under EU legislation that specifically targets emissions (category iii).
As a frame of reference with which comparisons can be made, an accurate quantification of the emissions arising from certain anthropogenic activities not regulated directly as industries (category iii, e.g. households, transport) needed to be made.
Milieu systematically reviewed the pieces of legislation at the EU level that affect emissions. The review focussed primarily on legislative acts specifically designed to target emissions from category ii) sectors. Milieu also considered legislation that may affect emissions through more lateral mechanisms, i.e. legislation on environmental quality that includes upstream triggers to control emissions. Regarding sectors within category iii), in many cases, emissions are covered by the E-PRTR Regulation, the impacts of which were to flag regulators who may then choose to propose upstream controls, where relevant.
Milieu conducted a horizontal analysis across the EU Member States to identify cases where emissions are covered under national, or in some cases, regional legislation, analysing the geographical scope of legislation and its main objectives; sectors covered/coverage of specific pollutants emitted by group iii) sectors; key mechanisms to control emissions and relevant implementation tools.
Milieu, together with its partners, provided the Commission with descriptive measures and approaches that may be applied to prevent or reduce emissions from those activities presently not regulated under the IED.